History of Edmond and Comet Halley

Astronomy Science ~ In every century, there are many comets discovered, comes with a brighter light and spectacular. However, of the many c...

Astronomy Science ~ In every century, there are many comets discovered, comes with a brighter light and spectacular. However, of the many comets ever recorded in the history of human life, just Halley's most legendary, most often remembered and talked about. Yes, Halley, short period comet that do "sightings" every 75 or 76 years. Just before the 17th century, the comet was not recognized as the same object as he appeared in the period of the next occurrence. Thanks to Edmond Halley was the one we then know the behavior of the comet's appearance.

Edmond Halley, English astronomer and mathematician, was the first to study the comet and then believe that the comet is a periodic comet, which comes every few years. He observations of the comet in 1682. After making sure that the observed object has in common with the two comets were observed by Peter Apianus in 1531 and observed by Johannes Kepler in Prague in 1607, Halley then concluded that three of the comet is the same object and will always appear every 76 years

Halley's extraordinary talent has been seen since he was a child. Halley was born on 8 November 1656, from a wealthy family in Haggerston, Shoredith, near London, England. His father, namesake, Edmond Halley, is a businessman soap maker and sells its products throughout Europe. However, when Halley was 10 years old, his father went bankrupt following a major fire which destroyed their personal belongings. Nevertheless, the father still tried to give the best education to their children to send to St. Paul. Halley showed his outstanding talent, has the same great ability for classical music and mathematics, observing the changes in the variation of the compass and study space objects.

At the age of 17 years, Halley entered Queen's College Oxford (1673). Halley was prepared as an astronomer with an adequate amount of equipment purchased by his father. He began working with John Flamsteed in 1675, an astronomer Royal Society of London, who helped with the observations. In his paper published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1675, John Flamsteed introduce Edmon Halley, a young man full of talent from Oxford, who was present at various observation and help Flamsteed careful observation in many activities.

Halley made important observations at Oxford, including the eclipse of Mars by the Moon on August 21, 1676 published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. However, he stopped the study in November 1676 and sailed to the island of St. Helena, the south of the equator area.At that time, Flamsteed received the task of mapping the stars in the southern hemisphere and Halley decided upon completing the program with a task that should be undertaken by John Flamsteed.

Unfortunately, the task is not supported by adequate funding. Halley had the support of the father and of the few people who mailed by King Charles II in the East India Company in order to help Halley and his colleagues at St. Elena. Other important people who support Halley is Brouncker, the President of the Royal Society and Jonas Moore who was very influential in the founding of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. Despite many obstacles during St. Elena, but after working for 18 months Halley managed to compile a list of 341 stars in the southern hemisphere of the equator and find constellations in the constellation Centaurus.

Halley returned to England in 1678 and publish a list of stars in the southern hemisphere. Although not finish school in Oxford, Halley was able to bring itself in a reputation as one of the influential astronomer. Various awards were rapidly coming to him. In fact, he could pass at Oxford University on December 3, 1678 without having to pass the test. He graduated top of the edicts and orders of King Charles II. He was also elected to the Royal Society on 30 November 1678, at 22 years old making it the youngest members. In 1720 Halley succeeded replace John Flamsteed as astronomer of the Royal Society, a position he held until his death.

In terms of achievement, it is quite spectacular. Just imagine, at a relatively young age, 26 years old, he had dared to conclude there was a comet that comes periodically every 76 years. At that time, Halley has been a member of the Royal Society in UK, a prestigious institution in the field of science in which sits the genius of the various disciplines. Generally, members of the Royal Society are scientists who are elderly, so that Halley membership at such a young age is an achievement in itself. That's because of his achievements, Halley later became very famous.

However, the fame achieved relatively quickly and easily that later would encourage Halley entered in an "intrigue" and the rivalry with senior and mentor, Flamsteed. Flamsteed known repeatedly attacked Halley.

Likewise, Halley who previously tended to dodge, hit back by calling Flamsteed as a scientist that fizzled, introverted, and loss of sense of social. Because of its proximity to Sir Issac Newton, Halley also be involved controversy with Leibniz, a German mathematician, in determining who the actual inventor of calculus, Newton or Leibniz. Halley known to be very close to Issac Newton.

Since 1696 Halley carefully conducted a study of the orbits of comets. According to Newton, parabolic comet orbits, but Halley believed elliptical orbits could happen. By using his theory of the orbit of the comet, Halley calculated that the comet that appeared in 1682 (now called Halley's comet) is a periodic comet and the same object as the comet that appeared in 1531 and 1607. Then, he also identified this comet as the same comet appears in 1305, 1380 and 1456 in 1705 he published his prediction in Synopsis Astronomia Cometicae that the comet will reappear every 76 years, while mentioning that the comet is expected to reappear in December 1758.

The calculations were performed Halley obviously not an easy task because it must consider in advance interference orbit by the planet Jupiter. Halley did not watch the comet that had predicted, because he died on January 25, 1742.
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Astronomy Science: History of Edmond and Comet Halley
History of Edmond and Comet Halley
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